The next #LTHEChat Wednesday 13th December 8-9PM (GMT) will be based on questions from Cristina Costa on “Digital education: participation as learning” Cristina Costa is a Lecturer in Digital Education and Scholarship in the School of Education, Strathclyde University. Her research focuses on the intersection of education and the participatory web through a sociological lens, especially […]
Peter McKenna from the faculty of Science and Engineering at Manchester takes a look at the literature…
While students feel that recordings enhance their learning and don’t impact on their attendance, most studies report that there is no significant impact on grades (Kushnir et al. 2011; Leadbeater et al. 2013) and that attendance drops (Traphagen et al, 2009; Marchand et al, 2014; Bos et al, 2015). The affective value is very strong (in all studies students overwhelmingly value lecture recordings), and this is crucial to relevant KPIs.
However, the flip-side of increased satisfaction is likely to be that students question the point of attending lectures (a perception that already surfaces in survey comments re lecture slide availability). We therefore need to consider how we communicate tensions about non-attendance being a positive part of the flexibility offered by lecture capture (e.g. dispense with the traditional obligation to attend), potential of allowing virtual attendance at live streamed lectures to be factored into attendance data, and any changes (if any) in expectations surrounding physical attendance requirements.
There are conflicting findings on whether lecture recordings could be ‘equivalent’ substitutes for lectures (Traphagan et al. 2010) or not (Williams et al, 2012). However, robustness of experimental design and isolation of other variables are problematic here. Most studies assume a priori the intrinsic importance of using recordings to supplement, rather than replace, live attendance (e.g. Leadbetter et al, 2013; Elliott & Neal, 2016); however, McCredden and Baldock (2009) while acknowledging a significant reduction in attendance, question assumptions around lecture attendance and advocate a ‘more than one pathway’ approach. It seems probable that scaling back attendance rigour is one of the reasons that lecture capture increases student satisfaction, and the importance of physical attendance – as opposed to, say, verified use of recordings – should be examined rather than assumed.
If we continue to require attendance, however, we need to be clear that attending lectures offers significant value over and above watching them. This could mean integrating added-value features into live lectures such as student-student and staff-student interactions. In any case, it will be necessary to clarify how teachers use the facility and how students use recordings; to apply pedagogy rather than merely present passively as a service.
There is a danger that lecture capture could simply reify traditional didactic presentation of information and increase the focus on such formats at the expense of other learning experiences. Leadbeater et al (2013) found evidence that lecture capture might encourage a surface learning attitude.
We need to consider the use of recordings in more communicative and active learning environments. Recorded segments could be actively reused in subsequent contact sessions, to facilitate consolidation and transfer (perhaps a more responsive and dynamic take on the flipped classroom). This could be a particularly valuable activity in response to sections of recorded lectures flagged by students (via Echo360) as hard to understand.
Lecturers can also create short supplementary recorded material for points that were not well understood or that are particularly important. Capture systems such as Echo360 and Panopto can also be used for prepared recordings.
We need more than ever to apply evidence-based principles of multimedia learning theory and research to lectures, and use lecture capture as a positive opportunity to enhance the presentational aspects of the University lecture. For example:
- Modality: the fact that all verbal information from a lecture will be primarily available in auditory format, should mean that we are freer to move away from text-based screens in our lectures and towards visual presentations and demonstrations. There is robust evidence for the modality principle (Moreno & Mayer, 1999).
- Segmentation: Lecturers should familiarise themselves with the pause button, and take control of recordings by planning to segment their lectures into small, self-contained and clearly-signalled themes (e.g. producing four 10 minute recordings interspersed with short activities rather than one 50 minute). Recordings per se enable students to fit content better to their attention and concentration spans, but structure and scaffolding add value. There is robust evidence for the segmentation principle (Mayer, 2005).
It is likely that students will expect clear support from teaching staff on the use of lecture recordings. Mather et al (2015) report that 72% of one student cohort felt that a lack of such support had a negative effect on their learning. Students will need to be advised and supported in how they can actively use lecture recordings to support their studies.
Owston et al (2011) found that lower-achieving students use recordings more, later, and more indiscriminately. It has been suggested that they therefore benefit more; but this appears to be speculation rather than a logical conclusion. It is also problematic that a simplistic post-hoc view might suggest a negative correlation between use of recordings and performance. These authors also found that students who view less frequently, achieve significantly higher grades than those who viewed them more frequently. Higher-achieving students used recordings selectively while lower-achieving students repeatedly viewed the whole recording. Cause and effect should again be questioned with such evidence. The selective use of recordings – including scrub, search and speed variation – would seem to be a sensible strategy as long as there has been a first sitting of the full lecture. Otherwise it would be yet another shortcutting technique.
Recordings are viewed more when assessment points are imminent. We could recommend review within a short time of the actual lecture for consolidation and short-term revision; discriminate use of search; and use of varied playback rates. Some recommendations will be technology-dependent. When the equipment becomes available in CELT, Stephen Powell will invite the group to explore the specific facilities.
Bos, N., Groeneveld, C., van Bruggen, J., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2015). The use of recorded lectures in education and the impact on lecture attendance and exam performance. British Journal of Educational Technology.
Elliott, Caroline and Neal, David (2016) Evaluating the use of lecture capture using a revealed preference approach. Active Learning in Higher Education, 17 (2). pp. 153167. ISSN 14697874
Paulo Kushnir, L., Berry, K., Wyman, J., Salajan, F. (2011). Lecture capture: Good student learning or good bedtime story? An interdisciplinary assessment of the use of podcasts in higher education. In T. Bastiaens & M. Ebner (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2011 (pp. 3168–3178).
Leadbeater, W., Shutterworth,T., Couperthwaite , J., & Nightingale, K. (2013). Evaluating the use and impact of lecture recording in undergraduates: Evidence for distinct approaches by different groups of students. Computers & Education, 61, 185–192.
Mather, C., Caesar, L., Chin, C., & Fei, J. (2015). Class attendance and use of Echo360 in Australia: A comparison between undergraduate nursing and maritime disciplines. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 2839–2845.
Mayer, R. E. (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 358-368.
McCredden, JE and Baldock, T. More than one pathway to success: Lecture attendance, Lectopia viewing and exam performance in large Engineering classes [online]. In: 20th Annual Conference for the Australasian Association for Engineering Education, 6-9 December 2009: Engineering the Curriculum. Barton, A.C.T.: Engineers Australia, 2009: 986-991. ISBN: 1876346590.
Owston, R., Lupshenyuk, D., & Wideman, H. (2011). Lecture capture in large undergraduate classes: Student perceptions and academic performance. Internet and Higher Education, 14, 262–268.
Traphagan, T., Kusera, J. V., & Kishi, K. (2010). Impact of class lecture webcasting on attendance and learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58, 19–37.
Williams, A., Birch, E., & Hancock, P. (2012). The impact of online lecture recordings on student performance. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28, 199–213.
29th November 2017: a joint CELT SEEG event
Sharon Jackson shared stories of her journey from senior executive in the global electronics industry to researcher, teacher and motivational speaker on sustainability issues.
Dismayed at the detrimental environmental impacts of her own and other industries, Sharon established the European Sustainability Academy in Crete. Here, in an off-grid, environmentally low impact building, ESA offers opportunities for academics, business leaders and others to engage constructively with the challenges of sustainability.
Sharon admitted that addressing sustainability agendas has been thoroughly depressing at times. The environment we work in is frequently not conducive to wellness, and it helps explain the disconnect between the intention to do good in the world and our ability to actually achieve it. The answer to that challenge includes two important elements: first, the need to identify ‘anchors’ – ideas for change that persist outside and beyond the discussion about change, and which allow us to make sense of the change process in the long run; and second, a community which shares the same understanding and commitment to achieving sustainability.
Join the debate – #TESS_HE
The Higher Education Academy is creating a global platform to provide an opportunity to learn and share from each other; to better understand the challenges and opportunities so that excellent teaching at all levels continues to evolve and thrive everywhere.
- What are the future challenges facing teaching in HE?
- How is teaching excellence best achieved?
- ‘What works’ in enhancing student success?
We want to hear from you in this debate – #TESS_HE
AcademiaObscura on Twitter is probably the world’s greatest source of (mostly) intelligent academic jokes, snide footnotes and entertaining abstracts.
”Teaching is not to be regarded as a static accomplishment like riding a bicycle or keeping a ledger; it is, like all arts of high ambition, a strategy in the face of an impossible task.” (Lawrence Stenhouse)
Kathryn Botham, who is the CELT PSF Lead, recently had an article published in the ‘Innovations in Education and Teaching International Journal’ re. captioned subject. Please see a short brief below:
An evaluation project was carried out to consider the factors that influence university teachers engagement with an institutional professional development scheme. Data was collected via an online questionnaire followed up by semi-structured interviews. This paper will consider those factors that encourage and act as barriers to engagement. The influence of six cross-thematic factors: Time; Institution; Culture; Management; Individual and Mentorship, on engagement will form the focus of the discussion. The report concludes that the key factor influencing engagement was the presence of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation was a less effective motivator for HE teachers lacking intrinsic motivation.
If you would like to read this article further please click here: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/WZejrydxvRQpaHYViGSM/full